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Citing Sources: How Do I Cite This?

Provides access to Alverno's APA Moodle course and the course's resources.

Technical Reports

Students working on evidence-based assignments often need to cite technical reviews or technical reports. These can be cited in a few different ways. 

This citation of an AHRQ technical review was generated using NoodleBib and is one example of how we recommend citing these types of sources.

Shojania, K. G., McDonald, K. M., Wachter, R. M., & Owens, D. K. (Eds.). (2004, August). Closing the quality gap: A critical analysis of quality improvement strategies. Volume 1 - Series overview and methodology. Technical review 9 (AHRQ Publication No. 04-0051-1). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare and Quality. Retrieved from


This citation of a review without an author uses the organization who created the review as the corporate author. It draws on material created in 2010, but there is no date of creation for the actual PDF.

The North American Menopause Society (n.d.). Contemporary clinical management of Menopause. Retrieved from

10-K Reports

Students in Management classes often use 10-K reports to obtain valuable information about companies. A 10-K report is similar to a company's annual report but it offers more detailed information about the business, finances, and management. (It includes legal documents, and information about lawsuits the company is involved in). Publicly traded companies must file a 10-K report each year with the SEC.

Look for citation examples at the the library website of Butler University - (

Reference List Citations:
APA 5th edition
Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from Mergent Online database.
Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from SEC EDGAR website.

APA 6th edition
Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from Mergent Online database
Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from SEC EDGAR website

In-Text Citation Example:
In this sentence, pretend I use some information that I need to cite such as a quote, concept, or statistical data. (Arrow International, Inc. 2009)

Lecture Notes

One approach to citing personal notes from a class lecture could refer to them as “personal communication” because it includes "unrecoverable data." 

The 6th edition of the APA manual (page 179) states personal communications are only cited within the text and are not included in the reference list.

In-text citation:
(A. B. Smith, PSY 235 lecture, November 16, 2002)


NoodleTools helps create accurate citations, reference lists, and annotated bibliographies. For best results, we recommend that you use it in conjugation with the APA manual or Purdue’s Online Writing Lab (OWL).

NoodleTools icon

Need more resources? Visit the library's Citing Sources LibGuide.

Citing Government Documents

This document has examples of citations for a federal bill and Wisconsin state bill.
NoodleTools icon
NoodleTools is available to Alverno students and can be used to create APA citations for legal and government documents - including state and U.S. bills and resolutions.

APA manual
The Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA manual) provides examples of how to cite legal and legislative materials. Copies of the manual are available at the Alverno Library.

The bluebook
For guidelines on how to cite legislative materials, the APA manual recommends consulting The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation. Questions about citing a state bill or resolution? This excerpt from the Bluebook will help.

Cornell University icon
Use the APA menu on the Cornell University Library LibGuides to find examples of how to cite government documents.

Library Information

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