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How to Cite in APA 7

How to use this guide:

  • Citation Examples: If you need help creating a citation for your reference list, hover over or click this tab to see how to build citations for over 20 different source types.

  • In-Text Citations: If you need help learning when to cite in-text to avoid plagiarism or how to create in-text citations, choose this option.

  • Citation Management Tools: If you would like to learn about tools that will build citations for you, like NoodleTools or Zotero, this is the tab for you.


APA 7th Edition Books


Additional Accessible APA Resources


Avoiding Plagiarism

Major Changes in APA 7


Essay Format
  • Font - While you still can use Times New Roman 12, you are free to use other fonts. Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans 10, and Georgia 11 are all acceptable.
  • Headers - No running headers are required for student papers.
  • Tables and Figures - There is a standardized format for both tables and figures.

Style, Grammar, Usage
  • Singular "they" required in two situations: when used by a known person as their personal pronoun or when the gender of a singular person is not known.
  • Use only one space after a sentence-ending period.

Citation Style
  • "Retrieved from" is no longer necessary when citing a website. Including the url is sufficient.
  • Developed the 'Four Elements of a Reference" (Author, Date, Title, Source) to help writers to create references for source types not explicitly examined in the APA Manual.
  • Three or more authors can be abbreviated to First author, et al. on the first citation.
  • Up to 20 authors are spelled out in the References List.
  • Publisher location is not required for books
  • Ebook platform, format, or device is not required for eBooks.  
  • Library database names are generally not required
  • Hyperlinks -
    • No "doi:" prefix, simply include the doi.
    • All hyperlinks retain the https://
    • Links can be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining